Hazrat Ali was the fourth caliph of Muslims. Though his real name was Ali, he was also known as Abu-Al -Hassan and Abu Turab. He spent his childhood with our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). He became the fourth caliph after the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman.
Early Life with Prophet Muhammad (P.B.U.H.)
He spent his early life with our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). He was a child when he started to live with our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).
Conversion to Islam
He was the first child who accepted Islam while he was just 10 years old. Once our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) was performing the namaz with his wife Hazrat Khadija, Hazrat Ali watched them and then asked what he was doing? Our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) replied that it is the religion of ALLAH and I also offer you to accept it. First Hazrat Ali thought that he should take the advice of his father but then he remembered that his father has already asked him to follow Muhammad (Peace be upon him). He agreed to accept Islam.
Hazrat Ali in Battles
Hazrat Ali took part in different battles and fought with extreme bravery. He took part in the battle of Badar where he took part from the start. He took part in the battle of Uhud and tried his level best to secure our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). He took part in the battle of the trench where he defeated Akrama who was a famous soldier of non-believers (Kuffaar).
Conquest of Khyber
The Muslim forces were trying to conquer the fort of Khyber but failed again and again as it was a big fort under the control of the Jews and their leader Marhab was also considered a brave soldier. Once our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) announced that tomorrow I will send a person who will conquer the fort of Khyber. The next day he gave the commanding flag to Hazrat Ali. Hazrat Ali killed Marhab in a fight and conquered the fort of Khyber.
The Nomination as a Caliph
Hazrat Ali was a member of a committee that was formed by Hazrat Umar, the second caliph. This committee was consisting of six members and all were from ten blessed companions. One member took the opinion of the people of Medina about Hazrat Usman and Hazrat Ali. He decided on the basis of these opinions that first Hazrat Usman will be caliph and after him, Hazrat Ali will become caliph. So after the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman, Hazrat Ali became caliph and Ameer ul Momineen.
Issues after Caliphate
When he became caliph, there was a grouping between Muslims. One group was in favor to take revenge on the martyrdom of Hazrat Usman while the other group was in favor to follow the caliph and it is the responsibility of the caliph to take revenge from the killers of Hazrat Usman. Some fights were also done on this issue.
As there were very difficult conditions that were not favorable to Hazrat Ali, some people didn’t give him pledge and instated to take revenge from the killers of Hazrat Usman first before any pledge. Hazrat Ali tried his level best to avoid most of the fights between Muslims but had to do few.
Except that, there were many rebels, who had been taken powers, tried their best to fail the caliphate of Hazrat Ali. He controlled most of their activities.
There were some rebels who planned to kill Hazrat Ali and some other Muslims who were companions of our holy prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him), three of them hid in the mosque. When Hazrat Ali entered the mosque to lead prayers, they attacked him suddenly. Hazrat Ali got martyrdom in this coward act of rebels.